- 1* New York CPLR § 3018(b) and Other Standard Defenses
- 2Abuse of Process
- 3Account Stated
- 4Accountant Malpractice
- 8Breach Anticipatory
- 9Breach of Contract – Implied In Fact
- 10Breach of Contract – Implied In Law
- 11Breach of Joint Venture Agreement
- 12Breach of Promissory Note
- 13Breach: 01. Breach of Contract
- 14Breach: 02. Breach of Third-Party Beneficiary Contract
- 15Breach: 03. Breach Implied Covenant of Good Faith & Fair Dealing
- 16Breach: 04. Breach of Express Warranty
- 17Breach: 05. Breach of Implied Warranty of Merchantability
- 18Breach: 06. Breach of Implied Warranty of Fitness for a Particular Purpose
- 19Breach: 07. Breach of Fiduciary Duty
- 20Civil Conspiracy
- 21Contracting With Minors/Infants
- 24Declaratory Judgment
- 25Defamation Libel
- 26Defamation Per Se
- 27Defamation Product Disparagement
- 28Defamation Slander
- 29Dog Bite Liability
- 30Emotional Distress, Intentional Infliction
- 31Emotional Distress, Negligent Infliction
- 32Estoppel, Equitable
- 33Estoppel, Promissory
- 34False Imprisonment
- 36Fraud – Constructive
- 37Fraud – Fraudulent Inducement
- 38Fraud – Negligent Misrepresentation
- 39Fraudulent Misrepresentation
- 41Injurious Falsehood
- 42Insurance – Bad Faith
- 43Invasion of Privacy – Improper Use Name, Picture or Likeness
- 44Inverse Condemnation
- 45Labor Law 240
- 46Labor Law 241
- 47Legal Malpractice
- 48Loss of Sepulcher
- 49Malicious Prosecution
- 51Negligence – Fall Down
- 52Negligence – Retention
- 53Negligence – Spoliation
- 54Negligent Supervision
- 55Negotiable Instrument
- 56New York State Disclaimer Statute
- 57New York State Prompt Pay Act
- 58Parental Liability
- 59Preliminary Injunction
- 60Prima Facie Tort
- 61Private Nuisance
- 62Public Nuisance
- 63Quantum Meruit
- 65Slander of Title
- 66Specific Performance
- 67Strict Liability – Manufacturing Defect
- 68Strict Liability Design Defect
- 69Strict Liability Failure to Warn
- 70Subrogation, Equitable
- 71Tortious Interference: 1. With Advantageous Business Relationship
- 72Tortious Interference: 2. With a Contractual Right
- 74Trust, Constructive
- 75Trust, Resulting
- 76Unfair Competition
- 77Unfair Competition – Copyright Infringement
- 78Unfair Competition – Trade Dress Infringement
- 79Unjust Enrichment
- 81Wrongful Birth
- 82Wrongful Death
Elements and Case CitationsState Standard: “A preliminary injunction may be granted under CPLR article 63 when the party seeking such relief demonstrates:
- a likelihood of ultimate success on the merits;
- the prospect of irreparable injury if the provisional relief is withheld; and
- a balance of equities tipping in the moving party’s favor.”
Federal Standard: Federal Injunctions are governed by Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 65. “To prevail on a motion for a preliminary injunction, ‘[t]he moving party must show
- irreparable harm and
- either (a) likelihood of success on the merits or (b) sufficiently serious questions going to the merits and
- a balance of hardships tipping decidedly toward the party seeking the injunctive relief.’ . . .
NEW YORK STATE COURTS
Court of Appeals of New York: Green Haven Prison Preparative Meeting of Religious Society of Friends v. New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision, 16 F.4th 67, 78 (2d Cir. 2021); Kane v. De Blasio, 19 F.4th 152, 163 (2d Cir. 2021)(preliminary injunction affecting government action taken in the public interest pursuant to a statute or regulatory scheme);Doe v. Axelrod, 73 N.Y.2d 748, 750 (1988).
Supreme Court, Appellate Division, 1st Department: Barbes Restaurant, Inc. v. ASRR Suzer 218, LLC, 140 A.D.3d 430, 431 (1st Dep’t. 2016); Gliklad v. Cherney, 97 A.D.3d 401, 402 (1st Dep’t 2012).
Supreme Court, Appellate Division, 2d Department: Sarker v. Das, 203 A.D.3d 973, 164 N.Y.S.3d 213, 214 (2d Dep't 2022); Sarker v. Das, 203 A.D.3d 973, 164 N.Y.S.3d 213, 214 (2d Dep’t 2022); Keneally, Lynch & Bak, LLP v. Salvi, 190 A.D.3d 961141 N.Y.S.3d 69, 72 (2d Dep 2021); Braunstein v. Hodges, 157 A.D.3d 850, 850 (2d Dep’t 2018); Chase Home Finance, LLC v. Cartelli, 140 A.D.3d 911, (2d Dep’t 2016).
Supreme Court, Appellate Division, 3d Department: Sardino v. Scholet Family Trust, 192 A.D.3d 1433, 1434, 145 N.Y.S.3d 636, 638 (3d Dept. 2021); Biles v. Whisher, 160 A.D.3d 1159, 1160 (3d Dep’t 2018); STS Steel, Inc. v. Maxon Alco Holdings, LLC, 123 A.D. 3d 1260, 1261 (3d Dep’t 2014).
Supreme Court, Appellate Division, 4th Department: Matter of P. & E. T. Foundation v. Doyle, --- N.Y.S.3d ----2022 WL 1196563, 2022 N.Y. Slip Op. 02730 (4th Dep't 2022); AJMRT, LLC v. Kern, 61 N.Y.S.3d 795, 796 (4th Dep’t 2017); Felix v. Brand Serv. Group LLC, 101 A.D.3d 1724, 1725 (4th Dep’t 2012).
NEW YORK FEDERAL COURTS
Eastern District: Mahoney v. U.S. Dep't of the Interior, 2022 WL 1093199, *2 (E.D.N.Y. April 12, 2022); Gambino v. Village of Freeport, NY, 2022 WL 138065, n. 7 (E.D.N.Y. Jan. 14, 2022); McCluskey v. Spitzberg, 2020 WL 6727780, *3 (E.D.N.Y. Nov. 16, 2020);Toussie v. Allstate Ins. Co., No. 15 CV 5235, 2018 WL 2766140, at *5 (E.D. N.Y. June 8, 2018).
Northern District: Brown v. Maher, 2022--- F.Supp.3d ----2022 WL 1025071, *2 (N.D.N.Y. April 6, 2022); Barrett v. Maciol, 2022 WL 130878, *1 (N.D.N.Y. Jan. 14, 2022);CF Fresh, LLC v. Carioto Produce, Inc., 2020 WL 6536472, *2 (N.D.N.Y. Nov. 6, 2020); Integra Optics, Inc. v. Nash, No. 1:18-CV-0345, 2018 WL 2244460, at *3 (N.D. N.Y. April 10, 2018).
Southern District: Edgar Agents, LLC v. Empire Filings LLC, 2022 WL 1128902, *1 (S.D.N.Y. April 15, 2022); Citigroup, Inc. v. Seade, 2022 WL 179203, *8 (S.D.N.Y. Jan. 20, 2022); Lewis v. Steward, 2020 WL 6801920, *6 (S.D.N.Y. Nov. 19, 2020); Monowise Limited Corp. v. Ozy Media, Inc., No. 17-CV-8028, 2018 WL 2089342, at *1 (S.D. N.Y. May 3, 2018).
Western District: Occhipinti v. Annucci, 2022 WL 1152842, *1 (W.D.N.Y. April 19, 2022); McFadden v. Koenigsmann, 2021 WL 5822299, * 1 (W.D.N.Y. Dec. 8, 2021); Bumu v. Barr, 2020 WL 6465433, *1 (W.D.N.Y. Nov. 3, 2020);Allah v. Piccolo, No. 16-CV-177-FPG, 2018 WL 2381886, at *2 (W.D. N.Y. May 25, 2018).
Defenses to Claim for Preliminary Injunction
(2) Statute of Limitations: N.Y. C.P.L.R. § 213(1) (six years); see Roslyn Union Free School Dist. v. Barkan, 16 N.Y.3d 643, 650-51 (2011).
(3) The purpose of a preliminary injunction is to maintain the status quo pending the outcome of the litigation. See, e.g., Barbes Restaurant, Inc. v. ASRR Suzer 218, LLC, 140 A.D.3d 430, 431 (1st Dep’t. 2016); see also New York Auto. Ins. Plan v. New York Sch. Ins. Reciprocal, 241 A.D.2d 313, 315 (1st Dep’t 1997) (a preliminary injunction that substantially changes the status quo must be denied.); Benitez v. King, 298 F.Supp.3d 530, 535 (W.D. N.Y. 2018).
(4) A preliminary injunction “is an extraordinary remedy that should not be granted as a routine matter.” See JSG Trading Corp. v. Tray-Wrap, Inc., 917 F.2d 75, 80 (2d Cir. 1990) (emphasis added); see also John G. Ullman & Assocs., Inc. v. BCK Partners, Inc., 30 N.Y.S.3d 785, 786 (4th Dep’t 2016); Allah v. Piccolo, No. 16-CV-177-FPG, 2018 WL 2381886, at *2 (W.D. N.Y. May 25, 2018).
(5) “A preliminary injunction is a drastic remedy that should not be granted unless a clear legal right thereto is shown.” See McGuinn v. City of New York, 219 A.D.2d 489 (1st Dep’t 1995)(emphasis added).
(6) A plaintiff seeking a preliminary injunction has the burden of demonstrating that (1) it will suffer irreparable harm absent injunctive relief and (2) either (a) that it is likely to succeed on the merits of the action, or (b) that there are sufficiently serious questions going to the merits to make them a fair ground for litigation and a balance of hardships tipping decidedly in the plaintiff’s favor. See Salinger v. Colting, 607 F.3d 68, 79 (2d Cir. 2010). The plaintiff’s burden is to make “a clear showing that [it] is entitled to such relief.” See Winter v. Natural Resources Defense Council, 555 U.S. 7, 22, 129 S.Ct. 365, 376 (2008); see also Council of the City of New York v. Giuliani, 248 A.D.2d 1, 4 (1st Dep’t 1998) (a “movant’s burden of proof on a motion for a preliminary injunction is particularly high.”).
(7) “A mere possibility of irreparable harm is insufficient to justify the drastic remedy of a preliminary injunction.” Borey v. Nat’l Union Fire Ins. Co., 934 F.2d 30, 34 (2d Cir. 1995) (emphasis added); see also Allah v. Piccolo, No. 16-CV-177-FPG, 2018 WL 2381886, at *2 (W.D. N.Y. May 25, 2018).
(8) Clear and Convincing Evidence: “A movant must satisfy each requirement with ‘clear and convincing evidence.’” County of Suffolk v. Givens, 106 A.D.3d 943, 944 (2d Dep’t 2013); Zoller v. HSBC Mortgage Corp., 135 A.D. 3d 932, 933 (2d Dep’t 2016).
(9) “[T]he failure to act sooner undercuts the sense of urgency that ordinarily accompanies a motion for preliminary relief and suggests that there is, in fact, no irreparable injury[.] … [If not] explainable, delay alone may justify denial of a preliminary injunction.” See Tough Traveler, Ltd. v. Outbound Prods., 60 F.3d 964, 968 (2d Cir. 1995) (emphasis added); see also Monowise Limited Corp. v. Ozy Media, Inc., No. 17-CV-8028, 2018 WL 2089342, at *1 (S.D. N.Y. May 3, 2018).
(10) A motion for a preliminary injunction is properly denied where “the plaintiff made only conclusory allegations and failed to point to any imminent and non-speculative harm that would befall it in the absence of a preliminary injunction.” See Family-Friendly Media, Inc. v Recorder Tel. Network, 74 A.D.3d 738, 739-40 (2d Dep’t 2010) (emphasis added).
(11) Statutory Injunctions: In Federal Court, “[w]here a party seeks a statutory injunction, however, a presumption of irreparable harm often applies, since the party is said to be acting as ‘a statutory guardian charged with safeguarding the public interest.’” See City of New York v. Wolfpack Tobacco, No. 13 Civ. 1889 (DLC), 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 129103, at *6 (S.D.N.Y. Sept. 9, 2013).
(12) Labor Disputes: A District Court may enjoin a labor strike when the following factors are met: “(1) the collective bargaining agreement contains a mandatory grievance procedure; (2) the agreement contains a no-strike clause; (3) the underlying dispute or disputes involved are subject to the mandatory grievance procedure; and (4) the traditional requirements of equity—irreparable harm and balance of hardships—are satisfied.” See Will Poultry, Inc. v. Teamsters Local 264, No. 13-CV-1135, 2013 U.S. Dist. LEXIS 180072, at *9-10 (W.D.N.Y. Dec. 23, 2013).
(13) Fait Accompli: “An injunction will not issue to prohibit a fait accompli.” See Finger Lakes Health Systems Agency v. St. Joseph’s Hospital, 81 A.D.2d 403, 408 (3d Dep’t 1981).
- The New York Rules of Civil Procedure
- New York Court of Appeals
- New York State Unified Court System
- Rules Regulating the New York Bar
- New York State Bar Association
- Federal Rules of Civil Procedure
- Federal Rules of Evidence
- Federal Rules of Appellate Procedure
- Southern District of New York Local Rules
- Eastern District of New York Local Rules
- Northern District of New York Local Rules
- Western District of New York Local Rules